Ultra -religious Sunnis and Shiites are much more easily distinguished. Shia Twelvers in Lebanon refers to the Shia Muslim Twelver community with a significant presence all over Lebanon including the Mount Lebanon (Keserwan, Byblos), the North (Batroun), the South, the Beqaa, Baabda District coastal areas and Beirut. Protect their lives and possessions as you do to your own. Ansari is an arabic word which the means ' Those Who Support '. Between Fakhreddines millions and the Medicis. ", Lebanon throughout its history was home of many historic peoples who inhabited the region. They include persons with surnames of Bhatt, Mir, Wage, Malik, Dev, Wani, Ganai, Dar, .   Sunni Muslims constitute 27% of Lebanon's population, according to a 2012 estimate. It means pious or true believer. This tack also applies to Lebanon's Shiite militia Hezbollah, established by Iran in the early 1980s. The ansaris now reside in most countries of south asia with large populations in india, pakistan, bangladesh and nepal. Lebanese policymakers have struggled to come to terms with the phenomenon of Islamic radicalization in a country where Sunnis make up roughly a quarter of the population and for decades have lived side by side with Christians, Shia, and other Muslim sects. , Zahir's military potential was significantly boosted by the backing of 10,000 Shiite fighters, noted by a French consul as "excellent fighters", who aided him against the sieges and assaults of the governors of Damascus, and participated in fifteen subsequent campaigns against his foes. In 996998, rebels in Tyre drove out the Fatimids for two years until the revolt was suppressed and the dissidents crushed. 1 a ; ; . Lebanese Shia Muslims (Arabic: ), historically known as matwila (Arabic: , plural of mutawlin ([Lebanese pronounced as metouali]) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which plays a major role along Lebanon's main Sunni, Maronite and Druze sects. Each sect has its own call to prayer with slightly different language and timing. Chief among them was Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, from Karak Nuh in the Bekaa valley, who achieved limitless power during the reign of Shah Tahmasp I such that the Shah told him, You are the real king and I am just one of your agents".  According to al-Muhajir, this Shiite presence in the Bekaa was later reinforced by migrants from Mount Lebanon following the Mamluk and Ottoman campaigns against Shiites in the 14th and 17th centuries respectively, as well as migrants from the Shia villages in Anti-Lebanon Mountains, where the Harfush dynasty originated from.  In 1771 and 1781, they also gave refuge to the displaced Shiites from Mount Lebanon and Jabal Amel who were fleeing the brutality of the Shihabis and Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar. Between 1187 and 1291, the Shiites of Jabal Amel were divided between the newly autonomous hills and a coast still subject to the Franks.  The Harfush and Hamade families received iltizam over the Bekaa valley and northern Mount Lebanon respectively, while Jabal Amel consisted of several nawahi governed by multiple families, until Ali al-Saghirs seized most of Jabal Amel by 1649. The majority of Afghans are Sunni Muslims, while a minority are Shia Muslims.  Shia leaders and religious clergy supported educational reforms in order to improve the social and political marginalization of the Shia community and increase their involvement in the newly born nation-state of Lebanon. The jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire was merely nominal in the Lebanon. Its not easy. , Further east in the Bekaa valley, sources are scarce and generally uninformative. " This meant that the Shiite Ja'fari jurisprudence or madhhab was legally recognized as an official madhhab, and held judicial and political power on multiple levels. , A decade later in 1781, Shia autonomy in Jabal Amel similarly diminished under Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar (17761804), nicknamed the butcher. in north india, the community are known as ansari or . Very religious families might decorate their homes with religious posters or signs specific to their sect. Lebanon I. Overview Weakened by deepening inter- and intra-communal rifts, the Lebanese state has gradually abandoned its primary role in governance and as manager of representative politics and relies increasingly on security measures to maintain stability and the political status quo. These feudal families frequently quarrelled with the Ottoman governors to maintain autonomy over their territories. Home.  And more recently, in 2018 the CIA World Factbook estimated that Sunni Muslims constitute 30.6% of Lebanon's population.. However, Shiites were the only ones who did not benefit from such activities. by | Feb 25, 2023 | british canoeing star awards | call kingsport times news | Feb 25, 2023 | british canoeing star awards | call kingsport times news However, in a country that had last census in 1932, it is difficult to have correct population estimates. Despite signing a letter offering submission to Selim I in 1516, the Harfushes' initial relationship with their new masters seems to have been problematic when the governor of Syria, Janbirdi al-Ghazali, executed Shia chief Ibn Harfush as a rebel in 1518, contemporarily evicting them from the deputyship of Baalbek.  Najm ad-Din and his guerillas reportedly kidnapped and ambushed Mongols at night, and would often adopt pseudonyms to conceal their identities. Alessandria Masi/International Business Times  According to Husayn Mroue, Shiism was one option among many for the communities of Jabal Amel, but for them, a positive and inviting dialectical relationship between the theological construct of Imamism and its social milieu gave precedence to the Shiite possibility. All contents 2023 The Slate Group LLC. Many Christians who fled their villages during the revolt were accommodated by Shia notables from Nabatieh and Bint Jbeil, an act that was appreciated by Christian clergies in letters. Over the years, there have been numerous clashes between the Sunni and Alawi communities in Tripoli, particularly over the past 14 months since Syria's uprising began, as part of the Arab Spring that started in Tunisia. While the French and Russians mainly encouraged Maronite and Orthodox active learning respectively, along with American Protestant missions in Beirut, the British established educational institutions in Druze areas, and Sunnis mainly benefitted from Ottoman state institutions. 1260), a Tanukhid emir from Mount Lebanon whom al-Yunini identified as a Shiite Muslim, and was buried in Karak Nuh. These genetic studies show us there is no significant differences between the Muslims and non-Muslims of Lebanon. club xl harrisburg capacity; pivotal group snapnurse; what happened to sofia's daughter in john wick 3; rachel lavine robbie kaplan; While governmental Sunni religious institutions and figures such as Abdel Malik Saadi, Rafi Rifii, and senior clerics of the Sunni Endowmentsan institution that was perceived to be infiltrated by sympathizers of Iraq's Muslim Brotherhoodplayed some role in mobilizing Arab Sunnis in the Anbar sit-ins, the institutional landscape has changed  Although Haplogroup J1 is most common in Arabian peninsula, studies have shown that it has been present in the Levant since the Bronze Age and does not necessarily indicate Arabian descent.  Following Egyptian defeat in 1840, the Ottomans deposed the Shihab dynasty and rewarded al-Mahmoud by restoring the autonomy of the Shiites until 1865, when Jabal Amil was incorporated into Syria vilayet and came under direct Ottoman rule. Shiite holy men wear either a black or a white turban (depending on their lineage) and a robe. With Shiism losing ground in Aleppo due to previous Seljuq, Ayyubid and now Mamluk takeover, a stream of scholars shifted to Jabal Amel, and the area probably received migrants from there as it provided refuge from Sunni rigor.  Entering the conflict as virtually the most powerful taxlord dynasty of the entire Syrian coastlands, the campaign left the Hamadas physically broken and politically dependent on Ahmad Ma'n. Some of the influencers of Lebanese culture are Phoenicians, Assyrians, Romans, Ottoman Turks, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, and the French. Scuba Certification; Private Scuba Lessons; Scuba Refresher for Certified Divers; Try Scuba Diving; Enriched Air Diver (Nitrox) The great majority of Shia Muslims in Lebanon are Twelvers. Long live Lebanon, Long live Lebanese unity and long live the Shiites. what the Shi'ites did for the Christians in the south will be cherished in our hearts for as long as Lebanon and the Christians remain. In addition, Abdul-Husayn Sharafeddine expressed solidarity with the Palestinian strike and demand for independence. The group soon became widely vilified in the Islamic world for its armed campaigns across throughout the following decades, which included slaughtering Muslim pilgrims and sacking Mecca and Medinaand Salamiyah. The boys' school was known as al-Ja'fariyya, and was able to continue despite financial difficulties.  A man named Omar, Abu Bakr, or Yazid would almost certainly be a Sunni, since these names correspond to the opponents of the first imams and the major villains of Shiite history.  In Mount Lebanon, the Hamada family were among the earliest identified Shia families, reportedly serving as tax-collectors in the district of Mamluk Tripoli as early as 1471, in the region Dinniyeh. For example, discussions about the mourning of the martyrdom of Imam Husain during Ashura, which was a clandestine affair before the 1920s and 1930s, led to its transformation into a public ceremony.. Between 16391649, Ali al-Saghirs seized most of Jabal Amel after defeating other rival families, cementing their role as the sole leaders of the region. Sheikh Ahmad Rifa had last been seen in the city, before his body was found in a hole in Akkar. What are some Afghan last names? Early Lebanese Isma'ilism showed perhaps an unusual propensity to foster radical movements within it, particularly in the areas of Wadi al-Taym, adjoining the Beqaa valley at the foot of Mount Hermon, and Jabal Shuf, in the highlands of Mount Lebanon.  Following the Syrian National Congress in 2 July 1919, when Shiites restated their support for Syrian unity, Maronites increased their armed activities against the Shiites. The two groups diverged after the death of Mohammed in the seventh century, when one side chose Abu Bakr, Mohammeds companion and adviser, to succeed him, and the other thought it should be Mohammeds son-in-law, Ali. This neglectance continued into the early days of the French mandate.  The Iturean Kingdom of Chalcis became vassal state of the Romans after they consolidated their rule over most of the Levant in 64 BC, and at their peak they managed to impose control on much of the Phoenician coast and Galilee including southern Lebanon, until the Romans fully incorporated them in 92 CE. However, in a country that had last census in 1932, it is difficult to have correct population estimates. As a result of his policies, Shiites held a meeting at Chehour village to organise guerrilla attacks against him, which continued throughout his rule. Lebanon's heavily armed Hezbollah, a part of the political fabric, wields great influence in the country. In recent years, the group has been implicated in sectarian violence such as the 2005 assassination of Lebanese Sunni leader Rafiq Hariri, and forty-nine of its operatives were arrested in the Sinai in late 2008.  Qarmatian influence may have also played a role when the latter gained foothold in neighboring Homs before the Abbasids kicked them out in 903.  When the Fatimids conquered the region in 970, they quarrelled with the local Shiites. Mustafa (Arabic: , romanized: Muaf) is one of the names of Muhammad, and the name means "chosen, selected, appointed, preferred", used as an Arabic given name and surname. Legendary Lakers center and all-time NBA leading scorer Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was born Lew Alcindor in New York City and raised Roman Catholic.  This transformation likely started following the demise of the Umayyads in 750, when the Emesene Shia poet Abd al-Salam al-Homsi (777850 CE) figures first. 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The family ruled most of Safed, Jabal Amel and occasionally Wadi al-Taym. , The Lebanese Sunni Muslims initially opposed the creation of the Lebanese state separated from Syria, where the majority of the population was also Sunni Muslim, and wanted the territory of present-day Lebanon to be incorporated within the so-called Greater Syria. During the post-independence decades between 1943 and 1990, Shiites had the highest fertility rate (3.8) of all communities. By the late 17th century, the family controlled a territory that stretched from Safita and Krak des Chevaliers in Syria to Keserwan, virtually most of northern Lebanon. lifeguard air ambulance new mexico . During this period of chaos, also several predominantly Christian villages in the region were attacked due to the armed support they received from the French and their perceived acceptance of French mandatory rule, including Ain Ebel. These Itureans inhabited the hills above Tyre in Southern Lebanon, historically known as Jabal Amel, since at least the times of Alexander the Great, who fought them after they blocked his army's access to wood supply. 37. top 20 most powerful greek gods; defenders with leadership trait fifa 21; aventon pace 350 amazon; logan paul apology text i have made a severe; chicago police department disqualifiers administrative office of the courts human resources lebanese sunni surnames. Show to them the love you show to yourselves. The Levant fell to the Ottomans in 1516, bringing about a new period in the region. During the revolt in 1938, the French requested British Royal Air Force support during their operations against insurgents in Bint Jbeil and South. Forty years in the wilderness, away from the flesh-pots of Egypt, had entailed harsh habits, the counted date and the hoarded water; nor had a thousand years in the wilderness of a Christian world, where only the secret treasure was safe, encouraged display; but the world was altering, the desert was flowering; in stray corners here and there . Najm ad-Din ibn Malli al-Baalbeki (b. "The Metoualis are almost annihilated due to their revolts; their name is soon to be extinct".. The Isma'ilis of Wadi al-Taym and Jabal Shuf were among those who converted before the movement was permanently closed off a few decades later to guard against outside prying by mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims, who often viewed their doctrines as heresy.  Al-Yunini identifies other notable Shia individuals from Baalbek in this period, including Muhammad bin Abi al-Hasan (11981278) from Baalbek, a battle-hardened fris and amir of 20 soldiers who fought the crusaders and Mongols; and Muhammad bin Muwaffaq al-Tanukhi (fl. - Quora Answer (1 of 11): It isn't any coincidence to find the same surname shared between the different religion in different regions in Lebanon ..one of the most common and big ones : * Zaiter * Moqdad * Harb * Tawq * Itani * Merabi * Zein * FAH's * Safadi * Aoun * Khatib July 31, 2019, 3:39 PM. The Banu Amilah were part of the Nabataean Arab foederati of the Roman Empire, and they were connected to other pre-Islamic Arabs such as Judham and Balqayn, whose presence in the region likely dates back to Biblical times according to Irfan Shahd. The region fell after 11 days of brutal fighting, driving an influx of Shiites toward the Beqaa valley and Jezzine, while a humbled minority stayed. While General Myers was meeting with officers and enlisted men there, I was free to walk around the base, and eventu ally I wandered into the command center, where my eye was immedi ately caught by a large flat-screen TV. This marker is found in many inhabitants of Lebanon, regardless of religion, signals pre-Arab descendants, including the Phoenicians. Local analysis often stresses that the growth of Sunni extremism in Lebanon is the . 22. . According to a CIA 2018 study, Lebanese Sunni Muslims constitute an estimated 30.6% of Lebanon's population. Shia cleric Abdul Husayn Sharafeddine had organized and lead the nonviolent resistance movement against the French since 1919, and demanded US support for Syrian unity during the KingCrane Commission visit. lebanese sunni surnamesaileen wuornos timeline. The Ottomans were determined to stop these contacts, taking further steps and appointing Fakhreddine to the sanjak of Sidon in 1590. Hezbollah confirmed that two people were dead. Later in 1921, this period of unrest ended with a political amnesty offered by the French mandate authorities for all Shiites who had joined the riots, with the intention to bind the Shia community in the South of Lebanon to the new Mandate state. Aqqush's army of 50,000 advanced and encircled Keserwan from four sides, and was confronted by an estimated 4,000 infantrymen on the Shiites' behalf. There are also Druze, Ismai li and Alawi/Nusayri minorities. , Nasir Khusraw gives the earliest accounts for Tyre and Tripoli during his visit in 1047, describing both cities as majority Shia Muslims with dedicated Shia shrines on the outskirts.  According to al-Muhajir, a similar thing would have happened in Jabal Amel which received a population influx from the Shia-populated urban centers at the time, most notably Tyre and Tiberias, as well as Amman, Nablus and the surrounding countryside. Though little is known about Husam ad-Din's life, he was apparently a close friend of Saladin's son Al-Afdal who later converted to Shia Islam. The Mamluks punished the town of Machghara in 1364 for disobedience and religious dissidence. In Ja'far al-Muhajir's assessment, the presence of pro-Alid tribes such as Hamdan and Madh'hij in the region after the HasanMuawiya treaty in 661 CE, likely acted as a vector that facilitated the Shi'ism among segments of the local populations in Jabal Amel, Galilee and Beqaa valley, where anti-Abbasid sentiment was common as a result of discrimination and ongoing marginalization of the region by the Abbasids. Seven Shia Twelver (Mutawili) villages that were reassigned from French Greater Lebanon to the British Mandate of Palestine in a 1924 border-redrawing agreement were depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and repopulated with Jews. Baalbek in the 18th century was really under the control of the Metawali, which also refers to the Shia Twelvers. Sunni Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium.  As the Muslim conquest of the Levant reached Lebanon, these Arab tribes received the most power which encouraged the non-Arabic-speaking population to adopt Arabic as the main language. The difference in dress code is even more obvious among clerics. , The spread of Shia Islam in Lebanon and the Levant was a complex, multi-layered process throughout history. Iskandar is a Lebanese version of Alexander and means defender of mankind. Politicians, Diplomats, and Public Servants, the Lebanese National Bloc political party, International Religious Freedom Report 2008, Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events, "Lebanon's Sheikhs Take on Assad and Hezbollah", Minorities in the Middle East: a history of struggle and self-expression, Syria's war ignites sectarian strife in Lebanon, "2012 Report on International Religious Freedom - Lebanon", "Contemporary distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lebanese_Sunni_Muslims&oldid=1142332895, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 1 March 2023, at 20:43. lebanese sunni surnames. But surnames arent reliable either, given the number of intermarriages that occurred under Baath party rule. At some times, the Shiites also fought the Druze, who at Jbaa attacked and wounded their religious chief who was sheltering a Christian refugee, and proceeded to loot his home. Isma'ilism, or "Sevener Shi'ism", is a branch of Shia Islam which emerged in 765 from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad. Historian Max Weiss underlines how "sectarian claims were increasingly bound up with the institutionalization of Shi'i difference. , Musa Harfush was succeeded by Yunus Harfush, who again re-asserted Harfush control over Homs and the Bekaa. Dig into and choose from MomJunction's treasure of 70,000+ baby names that are divided based on meaning, religion, origin, English alphabet, and gender. Isma'ilis hold that Isma'il ibn Jafar was the true seventh imam, and not Musa al-Kadhim as the Twelvers believe. Lebanese Christians (95%), Shia Muslims (95%) and Sunni Muslims (86%) all . A . At 24, he converted to Islam and changed his name..  A study done by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1985 put the numbers of Sunnis at 27% of the population (595,000 of 2,228,000). elgin mental health center forensic treatment program. Although there is common ancestral roots, these studies show some difference was found between Muslims and non-Muslims in Lebanon, of whom only 17.1% have this haplotype. Further east, the Bekaa valley was known as Amqu in the Bronze Age, and was part of Amorite kingdom of Qatna and later Amurru kingdom, and had local city-states such as Eniasi. All rights reserved. Most Popular Muslim Names in 2023 Liyana Inaya Ayan Aleena Aariz Nayel Aidan Inara Zidan Alaya Rayyan Aydin Anaya Izaan Zayyan Eva Naira Ayana Zara Haniya Eleanor Ilyana Zayn Yusra Hannah Arham Ayman Zoraiz Alyan Amal Dania Zimal Nahyan Nuha Haneen Afnan Amara Ayat Sarah Maira Ilhan Raha Mariam Ahsan Anas on Thursday 27th of August 2015 04:59:17 AM shia surnames in pakistan. Although it can be considered offensive nowadays, it was a way to distinguish the uniqueness and unity of the community. Due to official persecution by the Sunni Zengid dynasty that stoked escalating sectarian clashes with Sunnis, many Isma'ilis in the regions of Damascus and Aleppo are said to have fled west during the 12th century. 4 4 Prithvi Singh Student of Islam Author has 1.7K answers and 1.5M answer views 3 y Related How do you identify a member of the Shia Muslim minority in India?  During most of the Ottoman period, the Shia largely maintained themselves as 'a state apart'. 1221), one of Baalbek's few Shia scholars at the time, took the initiative and retreated to the slopes of Mount Lebanon, where he was joined by ten thousand guerillas according to 13th century historian al-Yunini, a number surely exaggerated. , "Mutawl" redirects here. (Return to the corrected sentence.). During the Iron Age, the Bekaa was dominated by the Aramaeans, who formed kingdoms nearby in Damascus and Hamath, and established the kingdom of Aram-Zobah where Hazael might have been born, and was later also settled by Itureans, who were likely Arabs themselves. One of the names of prophet.    On the other hand, Jabal Amel was inhabited by Banu Amilah, its namesake, who have particular importance for the Lebanese Shia for adopting and nurturing Shi'ism in the southern population. , Most of Jabal Amel regained its autonomy under Husam ad-Din Bechara, a presumably local Shiite officer of Saladin who participated in the capture of Jabal Amel and became its lord from 1187 until 1200. The three Shia principalities underwent different historical trajectories. As many as four people are believed to have been killed. In order to bring their demands (mulabiyya) to the attention of the French authorities, petitions were signed and presented to the French High Commissioner and the Service de l'Instruction Publique. This was the perfect moment for the French to strike, as they sent to the south an expedition of 4,0006,000 soldiers lead by Colonel Niger, heavily bombing the villages and crushing the Shiite rebellion by June 1920. In addition to their different narrative of Islam, the Ottomans suspected Shias of being a stalking horse for the Safavids, and often derogatorily referred to them as Qizilbash. The Alawites of the Levant were oppressed by the Sunni Ottoman Empire, but gained power and influence when the French recruited Alawites as soldiers during the French mandate of Syria. The term 'mutawili' is also the name of a trustee in Islamic waqf-system. , Sayyid Abdul-Husayn Sharafeddine believed that the only way to ward off foreign political influence was to establish modern schools while maintaining Islamic teachings. Divisions between Lebanese Sunnis and Shi'ites opened up after the 2005 assassination of former prime minister Rafik al-Hariri. From 1385, much of Jabal Amel and Safed was ruled by the Shia Bechara family, the descendants of Husam ad-Din Bechara. A Lebanese Sunni cleric known for his strong anti-Hezbollah views was killed by a group that included his relatives, Lebanon's Internal Security Forces said. (1) Reduced Drug Imports, Lebanese emigrants 815,000 in three decades, SYRIA JOINS CHINAS BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE. In 1598, as war broke out again between the Ottomans and Safavids, the Ottomans further appointed Fakhreddine over sanjak of Safed, which gave him direct control over the pro-Safavid Shiites.  According to historian Elizabeth Thompson, private schools were part of "constant negotiations" between citizen and the French authorities in Lebanon, specifically regarding the hierarchical distribution of social capital along religious communal lines. It is an Arabic epithet and honorific title of the Prophet. Sunni Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium. BEIRUT The Lebanese military on Sunday said overnight riots and sectarian tensions in central Beirut and other areas left dozens of people injured, including 25 soldiers, and warned that the clashes had endangered national unity. (The text on Shiite mosques, for example, will mention the imams.) Congratulations on your election victory, distinguished MPs!! There are over fifteen different officially recognised religious sects in Lebanon. Under the terms of an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, Shias are the only sect eligible for the post of Speaker of Parliament. Once empowered by the authority of the former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri since the end of the Lebanese Civil war in 1990, after his assassination in 2005 the Sunni community in Lebanon was left leaderless, with no backbone, and getting gradually alienated from political power. Haplogroup J2 is also a significant marker in throughout Lebanon (27%). Amid all this conflict, how can Shiites and Sunnis tell each other apart? 36. , Further South, the pinnacle of Jabal Amel occurred at the hands of Nassif al-Nassar (c. 17491781) of Ali al-Saghirs during his alliance with Zahir al-Umar. They also have a notable presence in Zahl, Southern Lebanon, Marjaayoun and Chebaa. The Christians (Nasara) are your brethren in the country and in destiny. On the other hand, Tyre successfully resisted a major siege in 1112 with the help of Toghtekin and infantry from Jabal Amel, but fell to the Venetian Crusade in 1124. , War in the region has also caused pressures on Lebanese Isma'ilis. , In addition, the Shia Twelvers in Lebanon have close links to the Syrian Shia Twelvers. Many Southerners went to Syria to participate, whereas in the Beqaa Valley battle spread to the Qalamoun Mountains and Akroum, where according to eye-witness accounts Shiites took more than 400 rifles and fifty horses as booty from French forces. The agreement restored their autonomy and granted a general amnesty for all Shiite rebels previously active against al-Jazzar and his forces, as well as a compensation for their losses after the battle of Yaroun, and granted the community the right to solve their internal problems without interference from the Ottoman governor.  More recently, in 2022 the CIA World Factbook estimated that Shia Muslims constitute 31.2% of Lebanon's population.. Other names cant be linked to one sect or the other: Youll find plenty of Muslims from both camps named after Mohammed or his daughter Fatima. As a response, Sadiq Hamzeh hoisted the Arab flag in several villages as a symbol of rejecting French occupation.